Advanced Placement


Clausius Inequality, Helmholtz Free Energy, Steady State Approximation and many more. Are you having difficulty grappling with these topics?
At Focus Chemistry, we will enlighten you with the definition, derivation and application of all these concepts, which will be tested during the placement tests. The recommended duration required for the preparation of these placement tests (CM1121 and CM1131) is at least 4-5 months.
We offer the following:
  • Notes used in both local and overseas universities such as NUS, NTU and University of Sydney.
  • Tutorials and Assignments coupled with solutions from the universities.
  • Linking concepts learnt at A Levels / IB / Polytechnic, which are necessary to excel in the placement tests.
Advanced Placement Course CM1121
This module deals primarily with the basic principles for the understanding of the structure and reactivity of organic molecules.
Chapter 1
Organic Structures – hydrocarbon framework and functional groups, systematic nomenclature
Chapter 2
Structure of Molecules – atomic structure, atomic orbitals, hybridization
Chapter 3
Organic Reactions – chemical reactions, using curly arrows to represent reaction mechanisms
Chapter 4
Nucleophilic Addition to Carbonyl Group – nucleophilic attack by hydrides, organometallic reagents, water and alcohol
Chapter 5
Delocalization and Conjugation – structure of alkene, benzene; conjugation, the allyl system, aromaticity
Chapter 6
Acidity, Basicity and pKa – definition of pKa, nitrogen and oxygen bases
Chapter 7
Using Organometallic Reagents to Make C-C Bonds
Chapter 8
Conjugate Addition – effects of conjugation, polarization, conjugate addition of alcohols, conjugate addition or direct addition to the carbonyl group, copper (I) salt and organometallic reagents
Chapter 9
Nucelophilic Substitution at the Carbonyl Group – carboxylic acid derivatives and their substitution reactions.
Chapter 10
Equilibria, Rates and Mechanisms – effects of reactants, temperature and products on the equilibrium constant, kinetic versus thermodynamic products
Chapter 11
Nucelophilic Substitution at C=O with Loss of Carbonyl Oxygen – hemiacetal and acetal formation, reductive amination, Wittig reaction
Chapter 12
Stereochemistry – enantiomers, optical activity, diasteroisomers, resolution
Chapter 13
Nucelophilic Substitution at Saturated Carbon – leaving group, nucleophiles, SN1 and SN2 reactions, elimination and rearrangement reactions
Chapter 14
Conformational Analysis – bond rotation, barriers to rotation, conformation of alkanes and cycloalkanes, ring strain
Chapter 15
Elimination Reactions – E1 and E2 reactions and mechanisms
Chapter 16
Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes – bromination, oxidation, regioselectivity, Iodolactonization and bromolactonization
Chapter 17
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution – enols and phenols, reaction of benzene, phenols and substituted benzenes with electrophiles
Advanced Placement Course CM11311
This course features physical chemistry, including equations of state of ideal and real gases, thermodynamics, solution dynamics, etc.
Chapter 1: The properties of gases
Ideal or perfect gases – Boyle’s Law; Charles Law; Amonton’s Law; Avogadro’s Law; Ideal gas law; Dalton’s law of partial pressures; postulates of the kinetic molecular theory; molecular view of gas laws; effusion; diffusion Real gases – deviation from ideal behavior; various types of intermolecular interactions and their importance; compression factors, virial coefficients; critical constants; equation of state; principle of corresponding states.
Chapter 4: Chemical equilibrium
Extent of reaction; reaction quotient Q; equilibrium constant (K) and chemical potential, activity, Gibbs energy; multicomponent system; relation between Kc and Kp; comparing Q and K to determine reaction direction; Le Chatelier’s principle; van’t Hoff equation
Chapter 2: The first law of thermodynamics
Scope of thermodynamics; basic terms in thermodynamics; the first law of thermodynamics and its applications; internal energy; work; reversible versus irreversible processes; heat capacity; enthalpy; calorimetry; adiabatic changes; thermochemistry; Hess’ law; standard enthalpies; temperature dependence of reaction enthalpies; state functions; exact and inexact differentials; changes in internal energy; internal pressure; the Joule experiment; Joule-Thomson effect; inversion temperature; liquefaction of gases.
Chapter 5: Phase Changes
Stability of phases; phase transitions; phase diagrams of pure substances; chemical potential; effect of temperature and pressure on phase stability; Clapeyron equation; Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Partial molar quantities; thermodynamics of mixing; chemical potentials of liquids; ideal solutions, non-ideal solutions; Raoult’s law, Henry’s law; colligative properties.
Chapter 3: The second and third law of thermodynamics
Thermodynamics and spontaneity; energy and the number of microstates; the Second Law; entropy; Clausius inequality; heat engines; Carnot cycle and efficiency; Third Law of thermodynamics; Helmholtz energy; Gibbs energy; Gibbs-Helmholtz equation; Gibbs energy change of a reaction; fundamental equation, absolute entropy, criteria for spontaneous change
Chapter 6: Chemical Kinetics
Measurements of reaction rates; determination of rate laws; differential and integration methods; various types of rate laws; accounting for the rate laws; steady-state approximation; proposal of reaction mechanisms; the collision theory of reaction rates; the activated complex theory of reaction rates; kinetics of complex reactions; explosion; polymerization kinetics; catalysts and reaction rates; enzyme kinetics; Michaelis -Menten mechanism